There are social problems which have been commonly observed in the global society and lasting for decades . On the other hand, some social problems emerged only recently. The former type s of social problems can be largely divided into two groups; one involves those, which exists but are not understood or recognized fully and another includes those, which are recognized quite well and whose solutions have been discussed or applied but remain in the society because of various reasons , for climate change and gender inequality We can call these two groups of social problems as type 1 and 2. The latter type s of social problems are new, for instance, the inequality caused by the Covid-19 and individualization. We can call these emerging social problems as type 3. To tackle the second group of the former types of problems , type 2 and the latter types of social problems, type 3 new and innovative approaches may be needed.
For social problem solving, there are different actors, academia, citizens, international and national government, NGOs, private companies, and their roles could differ depending on the issues. Leading sector for solutions may
also differ and the process of social problem solving can be diverse. When social problems become complex, multidisciplinary methods may be 3 appropriate appropriate.
In this research, we will study we will study activities, projects, and services activities, projects, and services to solve to solve those type those type 2 and 32 and 3 problems problems in developing countries and Japan in developing countries and Japan, which require , which require innovative approaches innovative approaches. Essential factors and bottlenecks for Essential factors and bottlenecks for innovative innovative approaches and solutions to social approaches and solutions to social problems problems will be identified will be identified and policy and policy recommendations will be made recommendations will be made as a result of our studies as a result of our studies.