KED Seminar #26 at 3pm on October 26 [for Members and Generals]

Kyoto Environment and Development (KED) Seminar is taking place at 3pm this Thursday.

We will welcome Takashi Kurosaki from Hitotsubashi University, and he will talk about the effects of the Covid-19 & Natural Agricultural Shocks on Preferences of Pakistani Farmers.

Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar #26

  • Date &Time: October 26, 2023, Thursday, 15:00-16:30 (JST)
  • Language: English
  • Venue: Seminar Room E217 (GSA, Kyoto University) / Zoom Web Seminar
  • Speaker: Takashi Kurosaki (Hitotsubashi University)

If you would like to join this meeting via Zoom, register in advance:

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about the meeting.

Title:

Effects of the Covid-19 & Natural Agricultural Shocks on Preferences of Pakistani Farmers (co-authored with Hamza Umer, Hitotsubashi University)

Abstract:

It is imperative to examine how different negative shocks influence preferences because preferences influence micro level decisions that provide foundations for macro-level outcomes. We contribute to this domain by reporting an incentivized field experiment that examined the effects of agr icultural income shocks driven by either the Covid-19 or other natural calamities on preferences of Pakistani farmers such as risk-taking, impatience, generosity and fairness. We find that the Covid-19 shock reduced impatience and generosity while the natural shock increased risk-aversion. Our findi ngs suggest that despite having a similar impact on farmers’ agricultural income, the two shocks influence a different set of preferences, and hence, we need to measure them both to identify their precise impact on preferences. Overall, these results offer new information about the relative impacts of the Covid-19 and natural shocks on preferences and help us understand the wealth and age-based heterogeneous effects of these shocks.


Contact

Chair: Ken Miura (Division of Natural Resource Economics, Kyoto University)

  • Ken Miura [at]  (replace [at] with @)



“Resilience Seminar #41” Jan. 26 [for Members and Generals]

The Resilience seminar cordially invite you to join the following hybrid seminar.
For zoom participation, prior registration is required here.

Resilience Seminar #41

  • Date & Time: January 26, 2023, Thu 16:30-18:15 JST
  • Language: English
  • Venue: Seminar Room E220, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University
    and Zoom Web Seminar (hybrid)

Speaker

Masanori Matsuura, Institute of Developing Economies (IDE-JETRO)

Title

Weather Shocks, Livelihood Diversification, and Household Food Security: Empirical Evidence from Rural Bangladesh

Abstract

Extreme weather shocks have occurred more frequently because of global climate change. Livelihood diversification including crop and income diversification is one of the most remarkable strategies to cope with economic and weather shocks to improve rural livelihood. We investigate the empirical linkages among weather shocks, livelihood diversification, and household food security, exploiting three waves of nationally representative rural household panel data merged with granular climate data in Bangladesh

Brief bio

Mr. Masanori Matsuura worked for a Japanese private think tank as an analyst and obtained MSc in Agricultural Economics at National Taiwan University, prior to joining IDE-JETRO. His research interests lie in the intersection among climate change, food security, health, and rural development.


Contact

Division of Natural Resource Economics
Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University
Ken Miura

  • [at] (replace [at] with @)

*This seminar is co-hosted by Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar and Hokkaido Branch of Japan Association for African Studies.




Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar #17 April 20 [for Members and Generals]

The Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar cordially invite you to join the hybrid seminar.

Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar #19-20

  • Date & Time: May 25, 2023, Thursday, 15:00-18:15 (JST)
  • Language: English
  • Venue: Seminar Room E217 (GSA, Kyoto University) / Zoom Web Seminar
  • Speaker: Takeshi Sakurai (University of Tokyo) and John Gibson (University of Waikato)

Register in advance for this meeting:

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the meeting.

Presentation by Takeshi Sakurai
Title: Improving Infant Nutrition through the Market: Experimental Evidence from Ghana

Abstract:

This study investigates the impact on infants’ nutritional status of introducing a new complementary food product for infants into the market. We conducted experimental sales of the product, Koko Plus, with randomly selected mother-infant pairs every week for half a year in Ghana. We found that the introduction of Koko Plus into the market significantly increased children’s weight. However, the effect was heterogeneous: it was smaller among children whose baseline weight was lower. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this heterogeneity and found that it was associated with access to safe drinking water. If mothers gave their children safe drinking water, the sale of Koko Plus significantly increased their child’s weight regardless of baseline nutrition status. The results imply that the success of a market-based approach to complementary food products in improving infant nutrition is dependent on access to safe drinking water.

Presentation by John Gibson
Title: Measuring rural economic activity remotely: Do we just need better sensors?

Abstract:

It is difficult and expensive to measure rural economic activity in developing countries. The usual survey-based approach is less informative than often realized due to combined effects of the clustered samples dictated by survey logistics and the spatial autocorrelation in rural livelihoods. Administrative data, like sub-national Gross Domestic Product for lower level spatial units, are often unavailable and informality and seasonality of many rural activities raises doubts about the accuracy of these measurements. In order to overcome these barriers a recent literature argues that high-resol ution satellite imagery can be used to measure rural economic activity and can provide indicators of rural living standards. Potential advantages of using remote sensing data include greater comparability between countries irrespective of their varying levels of statistical capacity, cheaper and mor e timely data availability, and the possibility of extending estimates to spatial units below the level at which GDP data or survey data are reported. While there are many types of remote sensing data, economists have particularly seized upon satellite-detected nighttime lights (NTL) as a proxy for local economic activity. Yet there are growing doubts about the universal usefulness of this proxy, with recent evidence suggesting that NTL data are a poor proxy in low-density rural areas of developing countries. This study examines performance in predicting rural sector economic activity in China with different types of satellite-detected NTL data that come from sensors of varying resolution. We include the most popular NTL source in economics, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program data, whose resolution is, at best, 2.7 km, two data sources from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiomet er Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi/NPP satellite which have spatial resolution of km, and data from the Luojia-01 satellite which is even more spatially precise, with a resolution of km. With this range of resolutions we can ascertain whether better sensors, used by the more spatially precise d ata sources, lead to more accurate predictions of county-level primary sector GDP. We supplement this statistical assessment with a set of ground-truthing exercises. Overall, our study helps to inform decisions about future data directions for studying rural economic activity in developing countries .

Chair:

Ken Miura (Division of Natural Resource Economics, Kyoto University)


Contact

Division of Natural Resource Economics, Kyoto University
 Ken Miura

  • @ (replace [at] with @)



Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar #17 April 20 [for Members and Generals]

The Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar cordially invite you to join the hybrid seminar.

Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar #19-20

  • Date & Time: May 25, 2023, Thursday, 15:00-18:15 (JST)
  • Language: English
  • Venue: Seminar Room E217 (GSA, Kyoto University) / Zoom Web Seminar
  • Speaker: Takeshi Sakurai (University of Tokyo) and John Gibson (University of Waikato)

Register in advance for this meeting:

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the meeting.

Presentation by Takeshi Sakurai
Title: Improving Infant Nutrition through the Market: Experimental Evidence from Ghana

Abstract:

This study investigates the impact on infants’ nutritional status of introducing a new complementary food product for infants into the market. We conducted experimental sales of the product, Koko Plus, with randomly selected mother-infant pairs every week for half a year in Ghana. We found that the introduction of Koko Plus into the market significantly increased children’s weight. However, the effect was heterogeneous: it was smaller among children whose baseline weight was lower. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this heterogeneity and found that it was associated with access to safe drinking water. If mothers gave their children safe drinking water, the sale of Koko Plus significantly increased their child’s weight regardless of baseline nutrition status. The results imply that the success of a market-based approach to complementary food products in improving infant nutrition is dependent on access to safe drinking water.

Presentation by John Gibson
Title: Measuring rural economic activity remotely: Do we just need better sensors?

Abstract:

It is difficult and expensive to measure rural economic activity in developing countries. The usual survey-based approach is less informative than often realized due to combined effects of the clustered samples dictated by survey logistics and the spatial autocorrelation in rural livelihoods. Administrative data, like sub-national Gross Domestic Product for lower level spatial units, are often unavailable and informality and seasonality of many rural activities raises doubts about the accuracy of these measurements. In order to overcome these barriers a recent literature argues that high-resol ution satellite imagery can be used to measure rural economic activity and can provide indicators of rural living standards. Potential advantages of using remote sensing data include greater comparability between countries irrespective of their varying levels of statistical capacity, cheaper and mor e timely data availability, and the possibility of extending estimates to spatial units below the level at which GDP data or survey data are reported. While there are many types of remote sensing data, economists have particularly seized upon satellite-detected nighttime lights (NTL) as a proxy for local economic activity. Yet there are growing doubts about the universal usefulness of this proxy, with recent evidence suggesting that NTL data are a poor proxy in low-density rural areas of developing countries. This study examines performance in predicting rural sector economic activity in China with different types of satellite-detected NTL data that come from sensors of varying resolution. We include the most popular NTL source in economics, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program data, whose resolution is, at best, 2.7 km, two data sources from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiomet er Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi/NPP satellite which have spatial resolution of km, and data from the Luojia-01 satellite which is even more spatially precise, with a resolution of km. With this range of resolutions we can ascertain whether better sensors, used by the more spatially precise d ata sources, lead to more accurate predictions of county-level primary sector GDP. We supplement this statistical assessment with a set of ground-truthing exercises. Overall, our study helps to inform decisions about future data directions for studying rural economic activity in developing countries .

Chair:

Ken Miura (Division of Natural Resource Economics, Kyoto University)


Contact

Division of Natural Resource Economics, Kyoto University
 Ken Miura

  • @ (replace [at] with @)



Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar #17 April 20 [for Members and Generals]

The Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar cordially invite you to join the hybrid seminar.

Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar #17

  • Date & Time: April 20, 2023, Thursday, 11:00-12:15 (JST)
  • Language: English
  • Venue: Seminar Room E220 (GSA, Kyoto University) / Zoom Web Seminar
  • Speaker: Christian Traeger (University of Oslo)

Register in advance for this meeting:

meeting/register/tZUpfuGoqzsrHtRJznPJMDHnZZC2n6d71ZbP
After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the meeting.

Title:

SolACE — Solar Geoengineering in an Analytic Climate Economy

Chair:

Yohei Mitani (Division of Natural Resource Economics, Kyoto University)


Contact

Division of Natural Resource Economics, Kyoto University
 Ken Miura

  • @ (replace [at] with @)



Recruitment: PhD and Postdoc Positions in Barcelona, Spain

The Sustainability, Economics, and Ethics (SEE) Research Group at Universitat Ramon Llull in Barcelona, Spain, is offering the following positions:

1. PhD in Sustainable Development in China

 

2. MSCA Postdoctoral Fellowship in Sustainability, Economics and Ethics

Please access the above links for further information on how to apply for each position.


Contact

Any questions can be addressed to

  • see [at] (* replace [at] with@)
  • PoPMeD-SuSDeV:



Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar #16, on Feb. 16 [for Members and Generals]

Kyoto Environment and Development Seminar #16

Paddy Cultivation as an Origin of Cooperative Norms: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Experiments

  • Date & Time: February 16, 2023, Thursday, 16:45-18:15 (JST)
  • Language: English
  • Venue: Seminar Room E220 (GSA, Kyoto University) / Zoom Web Seminar
  • Speaker: Kei Kajisa (Aoyama Gakuin University)

Register in advance for this meeting:

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the meeting.

Abstract:

It has been argued that the paddy cultivation experience enhances cooperative norms through collective farm management. This study aims to test this paddy hypothesis using a unique natural experimental setting in rural Sri Lanka, where two types of irrigation (for paddy or for non-paddy) were randomly assigned to farmers in an irrigation scheme, and, thus, the cultivated crops were exogenously determined.

Compared to the previous large-scale regional or nationwide comparisons, this setting enables us to test the hypothesis under a geographically and culturally homogenous setting. Using these natural and lab-in-the-field experiments, we show that the paddy cultivation experience enhances cooperative norms, particularly among the known members.

This result is consistent with our data showing the greater extent of interdependent work in the real world among paddy farmers. Our study supports the group of literatures which claims that social preference can endogenously change through real-world farming experiences.

Keywords:

Cooperative norms, paddy cultivation, irrigation


Contact

Division of Natural Resource Economics, Kyoto University
Chair: Ken Miura

  • [at] (replace [at] with @)